Friday, March 20, 2020
Writing Comments Example Writing Comments Ã¢â¬â Coursework Example Writing Comments al Affiliation 17th April What Experienced Collaborators Say about Collaborative WritingA group is different from a team in the content and not the structure. They both are made up of individuals working together but with different dynamics and different ideology. A group works under structures of authority with divided roles within the group. A team works as a synergy with concerted effort in one task after the other. As a student I believe teachers usually avoid collaborative writing because of social loafing; a member of the group does nothing at the expense of the others. A teacher can make group discussion better by making the students understand the purpose for group, the leadership of the group, challenges and how to resolve them when they arise.Collaborative writing The key factors for successful collaborative writing would include effective group leadership, better decision making criteria set, better solving of group conflict, and clear group interaction me thods. Time management in communication in the group set up has been improved through the change in contents of technical communication. The fact that technical communication has been shifted from the intermediary to individual has increased the transfer of communication among the general members of the group who take the information as a synergy rather than individual to individual communication.The Changing Nature of Technical Communication PracticeDynamism refers to that ability that exists to take up change. The change is either in nature or in person. Communications that involve technical communicators in the past involve people who acted as information links between different people working in a team. Knowledge economy through communication in a team involves making many team members aware of important information. Engineers and marketers in the past were not dynamic due to the nature of communication in the teams but due to changes in the roles of the technical communication practice the notion of lack of dynamism has changed. Technical communication is saving time since it is becoming less solitary and text based to more interactive and team based. Technical communicators now meet varying and rigorous responses that requires them to elicit better content and time management.ReferencesJames, C. Ã¢â¬Å"From the Structure of Text to the Dynamic of Teams: The Changing Nature of Technical Communication PracticeÃ¢â¬ (2005). PrintNancy, A , Dianne. A, Meg. M, Teresa. M, and Craig, S. Ã¢â¬Å"what Experienced Collaborators Say About Collaborative WritingÃ¢â¬ Journal of Business and Technical Communication. (1987). Print
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
MS vs. MBA Degrees MBAÃ stands for Master of Business Administration. The MBA degreeÃ is internationally recognized and easily among the most well-known professional degrees in the world. Although programs vary from school to school, students can who go for the MBA can expect to get a broad multidisciplinary business education. MS stands for Master of Science. An MS degree program is an alternative to the MBA program and is designed to educate students in a particular area of business. For example, students can earn an MS in accounting, marketing, finance, human resources, entrepreneurship, management, or management information systems. MS programs combine science and business, which can be beneficial in the modern, tech-heavy business world.Ã Trends Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of specialized masters degree programs at business schools, colleges, and universities across the country.Ã According toÃ survey resultsÃ from the Graduate Management Admission Council, there has also been an increase in the number of business schoolÃ students interested in specialized masters degrees. Career GoalsÃ When considering which program to choose, it is important to consider your future career path. Both the MS degree and the MBA are advanced degrees, and the superiority of one over the other depends solely on your career goals and how you plan to utilize your degree. MS degrees are very specialized and will give you excellent preparation in a specific area. This can be helpful if you plan to work in an area like accountingÃ where you need in-depth knowledge of accounting laws and procedures. AnÃ MBA programÃ typically provides a more general business education than an MS, which can be helpful for students who want to work in management or think that they may change fields or industries in the future. In short, MS programs offer depth, while MBA programs offer breadth.Ã Academics Academically, both programs are usually similar in difficulty. At some schools, students in MS classes may be more academically inclined because they are there for different reasons than MBA students. This is because some of the people who attend MBA classes are in it for the money, the career, and the title. Whereas MS students are often enrolled in classes for other reasons - most of them academic in nature. MS classes also tend to focus more on traditional coursework. Although MBA programs require plenty of traditional class time, students also get educated throughÃ work-related projects and internships. School Choice Because not all schools offer an MBA and not all schools offer an MS in business, you will need to decide which is more important: your program of choice or your school of choice. If youre lucky, you can have it both ways.Ã Admissions MS programs are competitive, but MBA admissions are notoriously tough. Admissions requirements for MBA programs are often harder for some students to meet. For example, most MBA programs require three to five years of work experience prior to application. MS degree programs, on the other hand, are tailored for people who have less full-time work experience. Students who want to enroll in an MBA program must also take the GMAT or the GRE. Some MS programs waive this requirement. Rankings One final thing to consider is that MS programs are not subject to rankings like MBA programs are. Therefore, the prestige that is carried with MS programs is much less discriminating.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Applying the Principles in Our Organization - Essay Example After the World War II, people around began to grow a sense of entitlement at their places of work, making employment look like a right rather than a duty or obligation (Koberg and Bagnall, 1981). This paper is designed to look at how entitlement meets several job requirements at work places for the employees in the hunt to apply the basic organizational principles. At Apple Computers, entitlement helps to meet this requirement as it ensures that team leaders emerge from within the organization. The organization has also put in place efficient communication channels that ensure suitable flow of quality information and timely feedback. In addition, the organization has mechanisms that identify outstanding employees and rewards them for their performance. All these activities aim at ensuring that employees in the organization are fully stretched to their maximum of their capabilities and grown as well. Learning of new skills is easier when the learner is interested and highly motivated or attracted towards the acquisition of that skill. Job entitlement at General Motors has been instrumental in ensuring that everyone understands that for one to develop, it takes motivation and not authority. The organization has invested heavily in developing the skills of their employees to ensure sound future leadership. Many leaders fail owing to their lack of exercising of the above principles. In order to have an effective team for a given task, the team leader must have a sense of entitlement and understand it in order to ensure that their decision making process is in line with the organizational procedures. In addition, they have to develop a team and not an individual. The process for acquiring a suitable team will involve a number of activities key among them being; i. The team leader has to pick the correct people in making the team. To do this, they need detailed information
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Social psychology Criminal Justice Systems - Essay Example This implies that for the errands of moderate complication e.g. EWT, performances augments with stress till an optimal point is attained where it begins to decline (Bell & Jones, 1994). According to Bartlett theory, recall/memory is subject to individual interpretation dependent on our cultural or learnt norms plus values i.e. the manner in which individuals make sense of world in which we live (Loftus, 1996). This is the concentration by an eyewitness on the weapon in particular to the omission of additional details of an offence. Where a weapon is involved in a crime, it is common for the witness to correctly describe a weapon in detail rather than the individual holding it (Ross, Read & Toglia, 1994). Cases which have eyewitness testimony have a higher probability of producing convictions (Visher, 1987). Jurors are doubtful of the eyewitnesses with low memory regarding details whereas they might be more accurate owing to the fact that they were concentrating on the face of the culprit instead (Wells & Leippe, 1988). Mutually, incorrect and correct eyewitnesses are trusted eighty percent of the time (Wells et al., 1979). All these shows the influence attached to persuasive eyewitness. According to Stambor (2006), "of the... 78% were wrongful convictions based on eyewitness misidentification." Eyewitnesses tend to be more confident as opposed to being accurate and this influences jurors who in turn trust them. This shows that eyes can be deceiving. Strong emotions, expectations, current knowledge and beliefs affect memories. Evocative questioning incorporates deceptive information into the memory. It is not possible to distinguish real memories from the force memories. All these can be attributed to misinformation effect. The error can be reduced by (1) training the police interviewers. Research has shown that cognitive interview after spontaneous recollections augments information by fifty percent without raising the fake memory rate. (2) Reducing fake lineup identifications. This can be achieved by eliminating composites and arrays, paying attention to the identification time, using sequential lineup, prohibiting post-identification feedback, using blind testing processes with neutral and scripted questions and reminding a witness of the fact that the suspect might not be included in the lineup. (3) Educating the jurors. What other factors influence juror judgments Defendant's characteristics The characteristics of the defendant are in terms of resemblance to the juror (e.g. same language, political beliefs and expectations of conventional conduct), and the physical attractiveness. Despite the fact that juror do not disregard the "facts" of a particular case whilst deliberating, in case the evidence turns out to be lacking or ambiguous, there is a high probability for them to allow personality character of the defendant to persuade their decisions. According to research on influence of similarities of a defendant to a jury by Mazzella and Feingold (1994), "Mock-jurors punished white
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Galileo Galileis Theory Of The Tides Philosophy Essay Galileo Galileis theory of how and why the tides worked was, as we have known for hundreds of years, horribly wrong, and yet phenomenal; one that only a mind as brilliant as his could have formulated. In fact, it was a significant step towards modern science and discovery. In 1595, when Galileo first came up with his explanations for the tides, he was desperately trying to prove that the Copernican universe was true something that the church and public would not accept at the time. In addition to this, Galileo believed that the common hypothesis of the cause of the tides at that time (that they were caused by the moon) was a lamentable piece of mysticism, as scientists who proposed it could offer no scientific explanation for it (Tyson, P. His Big Mistake, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/mistake.html). One of the main scientists of the time who supported the hypothesis of the tides being caused by the moon was Johannes Kepler, who was indeed correct in his hypothesis, which how ever was only based upon intuition. Interestingly, it is this way of conducting science which Galileo opposed: he believed in a more hands-on approach to science, in which one worked with what he could see and made rational and mathematical sense of his conclusions. It is because of this experimental attitude towards science that Galileo was called the father of modern science by the likes of Albert Einstein and Steven Hawking. At the time of Galileo Galilei, modern science did not exist theories were formulated more mere intuition rather than hard facts and observations. Galileo supported the observations made by Copernicus in the mid 16th century which suggested that the Earth was not static, but rather that it orbited around the sun, as with other planets. This theory explained why objects in the sky seemed to move. However, at the time of Galileo (16-17th century) the Ptolemaic system was still taught and fully supported by the church. This system described that the sun orbited around a static Earth, in contrast with the Copernican heliocentric view of our system. Therefore, Galileos determination to prove the Copernican theory he so strongly believed in played a large part in why he got the tides wrong. Galileos explanation of the tides was written in a formal letter to a cardinal, after Galileo had failed to convince the church to not ban the Copernican theory in Rome in 1616. This letter was entitled Discorso sul flusso e il reflusso del mare. The scientist used an interesting metaphor to describe the tides he examined in how many different ways the water in a vase can move, in which clearly the vase represented the Earth. Firstly, the slope of the vase plays a part in the movement of the water. Furthermore, external forces such as wind can affect water movement. Lastly, and most importantly, the motion of the vase itself can influence the water movement. This final point was the root of Galileos theory of the tides. The idea occurred to him while travelling on a barge that was ferrying freshwater to Venice. (Galileo lived in nearby Padua and often visited Venice.) He noticed that whenever the barges speed or direction altered, the freshwater inside sloshed around accordingly. If the vessel suddenly ground to a halt on a sandbar, for instance, the water pushed up towards the bow then bounced back toward the stern, doing this several times with ever decreasing agitation until it returned to a level state. (Tyson, P. His Big Mistake, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/mistake.html). According to the Copernican system, the Earth is affected by two circular motions the annual revolution about the sun and the diurnal rotation. Due to these two motions, there is a change in the speed of the Earths rotation every 12 hours, which Galileo explained mathematically and connected this with his observations of the freshwater barge in Venice. Thus, for 12 hours, a point on the earths surface will move eastward, in opposition to the global westward movement of the earth, and for 12 hours it will move westward, in the same direction as the annual motion. The composition of these motions causes on one hand a slackening (due to a subtraction of two opposite motions) and on the other hand an acceleration (due to an addition of two motions in the same direction). (Gigli, R. Galileos theory of the tides, http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/observations/tides.html#4). Furthermore, he explained that differences in tidal flows are due to the differences in the physical conformations of the basins in which they flow. (Machamer, P. Galileo Galilei, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/galileo/). Thus, Galileo thought he had explained the mystery of the tides. Moreover, this theory of his satisfied Galileo because it strongly supported the Copernican universe: the movement of the Earth accounts for the tides, and the tides account for the Earths movement, thus suggesting a heliocentric view of our system, which Galileo supported. In 1623 Galileo was brought to the Inquisition for suggesting in his Dialogue that the Copernican view was correct, which shows how determined the scientist was to find proof of the heliocentric universe. At the same time in history, a contemporary scientist of Galileos, Johannus Kepler, argued that the waters attraction to the moon caused the flux and reflux of the sea water, ie the tides. Galileo dismissed this idea of magic attraction between the moon and water, as no one tried to justify it by mathematical or experimental means. Instead, Galileo believed in a mechanical approach, as explained previously, which could be accounted for using mathematics and scientific facts and knowledge. Galileo, therefore, led the scientific world away from an intuitive and deductive approach which was prominent at his time to a modern, experimental way of conducting science, despite being completely wrong about the cause of the tides. Galileos theory, however, was not without its objections, and one can see why many were reluctant to accept it. The main problem was that his theory would call for only one high tide every day, whereas it was known already that there are about two. Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes, including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors. (Finocchiaro (1989), pp.127-131 and Drake (1953), pp. 432-6). Also, the tidal argument does not directly deal with the annual motion of the earth about the sun. And finally, Galileos theory does not suggest anything about the central position of the sun or about the periods of the planets as calculated by Copernicus. (Machamer, P. Galileo Galilei, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/galileo/). Therefore, Galileos theory about the tides did not completely prove that our system is heliocentric, even though the scientist was so eager to do so. It was this eagerness, according to Einstein, that led Galileo to cl ing so tightly to his theory of the tides, and thus slightly mislead him. Nevertheless, the weaknesses present in Galileo Galileis theory of the tides proved that it had been extremely well thought out and rationalised using mathematics, as one would not be able to point out mistakes if the theory had been based on intuition. On the other hand, Kepler was basing his theory of the tides caused by the moon on pure intuitive deduction. He wrote: If the earth ceased to attract the waters of the sea, the seas would rise and flow into the moon and added If the attractive force of the moon reaches down to the earth, it follows that the attractive force of the earth, all the more, extends to the moon and even farther (Fowler, M. More Kepler, http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/1995/lectures/morekepl.html), which were interesting arguments indeed, but Kepler did nothing in terms of physical and mathematical illustration to prove his point. Therefore, Galileo had no choice but to refuse Keplers ideas, despite them being ultimately indicative of the truth, due to the lack of empirical and experimental justification. How could the moon be magically attracting the water on the Earths surface? Newtonian gravity did not exist at the time, so an explanation was not possible. What Galileo stood against was the fact that Kepler could not even offer any plausible explanation, in words or mathematics alike, for his theory of the tides. It is this attitude towards science which made Galileo special and earned him a place as one of the greatest scientists of all time. It wasnt until Isaac Newton came along that the tides were explained specifically in a scientific manner. Published in 1686, his explanation of the tides was roughly the following: Tides are periodic rises and falls of large bodies of water. Tides are caused by the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the Moon. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon. Another bulge occurs on the opposite side, since the Earth is also being pulled toward the moon (and away from the water on the far side). Since the earth is rotating while this is happening, two tides occur each day (Col, J. Tides, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/moon/Tides.shtml). Newton was thus able to expand on Keplers intuitive theory of the tides and explain it scientifically, finally proving it. This, however, would not have been possible had Galileo not shown the world how to conduct modern science in an empirical and experimental manner , relying on observations to draw plausible, rational and mathematical conclusions. It can hence be concluded that Galileo Galileis mistaken theory of the tides, his greatest blunder, served only to further demonstrate his great strength, which was the ability to conduct scientific experiments and analysis using only what he saw with his own eyes, deviating away from intuitive and deductive reasoning to a more hands on, empirical and experimental way of doing science. The world at Galileos time, in the 16-17th centuries, was stuck in a mentality where scientific knowledge was based on more on closing ones eyes than on observing through the telescope (Gigli, R. Galileos theory of the tides, http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/observations/tides.html#4), which means that Galileo broke a seemingly unbreakable barrier he fought against the Inquisition, the church and even fellow scientists to carry science to its right direction to ensure the future of modern science. It was as if Galileo knew exactly where the world of science was supposed to go, and did everything in his pow er to make sure it go there. It is of no historical importance that Galileos theory of the tides was actually wrong: what matters is the thinking and reasoning process that was behind the very plausible theory for its time. In fact, Newtons proof that it was wrong only again goes to show exactly what Galileo Galilei so strongly stood for: basing theories on experimental observations and mathematical calculations using only facts. It is no wonder that the likes of Albert Einstein and Steven Hawking have named Galileo Galilei the father of modern science.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Males and females have always had different gender roles and these roles have an impact on the workplace and home. However there are also some disadvantages for both of them. This essay will describe gender roles at work and in the home with reference to Japan. Firstly, many women are distressed by the balance between home and work. They face Ã¢â¬Å"role overloadÃ¢â¬ ,which means trying to merge the roles of worker and mother or wife. When both spouses work outside, women tend to do the Ã¢â¬Å"lionÃ¢â¬â¢s shareÃ¢â¬ of the housework. For example, an Australian research showed that working women do roughly 70 hours of housework while working husbands only do approximately 31 hours. In Japan many women work fulltime share the housework with their spouse. However there are still some women who work both at home and at the work place and still experience Ã¢â¬Å"role overload. Ã¢â¬ Secondly, many men also experience challenges with gender roles. While they are less likely to suffer from prejudice, there are more disadvantages than advantages. For example, many men tend to experience stress from the pressure to make money, the situation employment, and social expectations. In Japan, many men experience these problems as well as the responsibility to earn a good salary. However the current financial crisis makes difficult for them to keep their position and workplace. Thirdly, a lot of women are confronted with inequality at work. Nowadays their rights have become much better than in the past and therefore gender equality is guarded in many places by laws. As a result, most women can get higher salaries than before. However inequality at work still remains and even though men and women have the same qualifications or skills, women still earn lower salaries and have lower status. For example, many of their jobs are inferior to menÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs and they do not have opportunities to get higher positions because of the Ã¢â¬Å"glass ceiling. Ã¢â¬ In Japan, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights have improved and many can get higher positions, like cabinet ministers in the Japanese government. However for some women this problem still continues. In conclusion, many workplace rights have become much better than in the past and many women can get good salaries and positions. However both spouses still experience Ã¢â¬Å"role overloadÃ¢â¬ and pressure to earn money. When these problems are dealt with, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives will improve in the future.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
In every city there are children. Those children do extra curricular activities, like karate, tennis, and basketball. We all know that one kid that excels at each. In Jerrys situation he was not that kid. He is the total opposite. Jerrys brother Jackson was that kid. Jerry was 3 years younger than his brother, and was always stuck in his shadow. When they were younger their parents had signed them up for karate. Jerry never liked to do karate, although he never told his parents that. He would rather keep up the family tradition of practicing the art of karate. His brother enjoys doing karate and has won many trophies and awards. Jerry was on his way to karate practice which he dreaded, because of a number things. The first thing wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s still a month of school left and JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s gonna try his best to improve. Over the course of the next month he was eager when it was time go to karate. While at practice just a week before he left for camp, it had seemed that jerry had improved. He noticed it as well as his parents, brother, teammates, and most important of all his karate instructor. While Jerry was packing for camp he was just playing out every scenario of what could happen in his mind. There was a long car ride and all he could do was watch karate videos of professionals to see what they do, and apply it to him. The long car ride they arrived at the karate camp. Jerry was gathering his things and saying goodbye to his family, and they were giving him words of encouragement. Jackson turned to Jerry and said Ã¢â¬Å"good luck chumpÃ¢â¬ . Jerry laughed and walked off to head to the building. The building was big red, blue, and tall. With about 5 floors. Jerry walked in and was greeted by the head instructor and was handed his schedule and his room key. Jerry asked to Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Altherr what time is lunchÃ¢â¬ ? Mr. Altherr laughed and walked away. Jerry walked up the stairs to his room. Jerry could hear noise fr om the rooms before his, while walking in the hall. He put the key in and turned it in. When he walks into the room and sees his roommate sitting on a bunk bed. Jerry introduced himself. His roommate responds withÃ¢â¬ hello my name is Jerry to !Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Jerry felt like they had an instant